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Only 20 percent managed to break out of the illusory confinement and continue their lines in the white space surrounding the dots.

The symmetry, the beautiful simplicity of the solution, and the fact that 80 percent of the participants were effectively blinded by the boundaries of the square led Guilford and the readers of his books to leap to the sweeping conclusion that creativity requires you to go outside the box.

Management consultants in the 1970s and 1980s even used this puzzle when making sales pitches to prospective clients.

The idea went viral (via 1970s-era media and word of mouth, of course).

Overnight, it seemed that creativity gurus everywhere were teaching managers how to think outside the box.

Today many people are familiar with this puzzle and its solution.

In the 1970s, however, very few were even aware of its existence, even though it had been around for almost a century.

Because they hadn’t, they were obviously not as creative or smart as they had previously thought, and needed to call in creative experts. The nine-dot puzzle and the phrase “thinking outside the box” became metaphors for creativity and spread like wildfire in marketing, management, psychology, the creative arts, engineering, and personal improvement circles.

There seemed to be no end to the insights that could be offered under the banner of thinking outside the box.Indeed, the concept enjoyed such strong popularity and intuitive appeal that no one bothered to check the facts.No one, that is, before two different research teams—Clarke Burnham with Kenneth Davis, and Joseph Alba with Robert Weisberg—ran another experiment using the same puzzle but a different research procedure. Guilford was one of the first academic researchers who dared to conduct a study of creativity.He challenged research subjects to connect all nine dots using just four straight lines without lifting their pencils from the page.A l’occasion des débats sur la levée de son immunité parlementaire, Foukory Ibrahim promet des grandes révélations sur l’usage des fonds et matériels de la Nigelec, notamment, sous le régime de la transition de Djibo Salou.Although studying creativity is considered a legitimate scientific discipline nowadays, it is still a very young one. One of Guilford’s most famous studies was the nine-dot puzzle.Sciences Po a réuni chercheurs, développeurs et journalistes pendant quatre jours pour exploiter différents jeux de données liés à l’élection présidentielle, un événement dont nous étions partenaires.Le député Foukory Ibrahim (dont la requête de levée de son immunité parlementaire a été introduite par le Gouvernement), est sorti de sa réserve ce lundi 12 mars, en marge d’un point de presse animé par le groupe parlementaire de l’opposition politique ARN dans la salle de commission des Finances de l’Assemblée Nationale.Dans une tribune au « Monde », un collectif de hauts fonctionnaires estime que le macronisme se distingue par la confusion entre une partie de la haute administration et la politique du gouvernement.Dans une tribune au « Monde », Zaki Laïdi, politologue et membre de LRM, affirme que la démarche du président s’approche du projet progressiste américain qui vise à anticiper la croissance des inégalités. Il y a fort à parier que les grands corps perpétueront l’entretien d’« une forme d’aristocratie de la fonction publique », selon l’expression du politologue Luc Rouban, explique la journaliste du « Monde », Soazig Le Nevé.

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